The astrolabe is a very ancient astronomical computer for solving problems relating to time and the position of the Sun and stars in the sky. Several types of astrolabes have been made. By far the most popular type is the planispheric astrolabe, on which the
celestial sphere is projected onto the plane of the equator. A typical old astrolabe was made of brass and was about 6 inches (15 cm) in diameter, although much larger and smaller ones were made.
A TED TALK ON THE ASTROLABE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yioZhHe1i5M
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia"Geocentric" redirects here. For orbits around the Earth, see Geocentric orbit.Figure of the heavenly bodies — An illustration of the Ptolemaic geocentric system by Portuguese cosmographer and cartographer Bartolomeu Velho, 1568 (Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris)In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the universe with the Earth at the center. Under the geocentric model, the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets all circled Earth. The geocentric model served as the predominant description of the cosmos in many ancient civilizations, such as those of Aristotle and Ptolemy.Two observations supported the idea that the Earth was the center of the Universe. First, the Sun appears to revolve around the Earth once per day. While the Moon and the planets have their own motions, they also appear to revolve around the Earth about once per day. The stars appeared to be on a celestial sphere, rotating once each day along an axis through the north and south geographic poles of the Earth. Second, the Earth does not seem to move from the perspective of an Earth-bound observer; it appears to be solid, stable, and unmoving.Ancient Greek, ancient Roman and medieval philosophers usually combined the geocentric model with a spherical Earth. It is not the same as the older flat Earth model implied in some mythology.[n 1][n 2] The ancient Jewish Babylonian uranography pictured a flat Earth with a dome-shaped rigid canopy named firmament placed over it. (רקיע- rāqîa').[n 3][n 4][n 5][n 6][n 7][n 8] However, the ancient Greeks believed that the motions of the planets were circular and not elliptical, a view that was not challenged in Western culture until the 17th century through the synthesis of theories by Copernicus and Kepler.The astronomical predictions of Ptolemy's geocentric model were used to prepare astrological and astronomical charts for over 1500 years. The geocentric model held sway into the early modern age, but from the late 16th century onward, it was gradually superseded by the Heliocentric model of Copernicus, Galileo and Kepler. There was much resistance to the transition between these two theories. Christian theologians were reluctant to reject a theory that agreed with Bible passages (e.g. "Sun, stand you still upon Gibeon", Joshua 10:12). Others felt a new, unknown theory could not subvert an accepted consensus for geo
Eric Dubay said. ~ A Flat Earth ConspiracyBy removing Earth from the motionless center of the Universe, these Masons have moved us physically and metaphysically from a place of supreme importance to one of complete nihilistic indifference. If the Earth is the center of the Universe, then the ideas of God, creation, and a purpose for human existence are resplendent. But if the Earth is just one of billions of planets revolving around billions of stars in billions of galaxies, then the ideas of God, creation, and a specific purpose for Earth and human existence become highly implausible.By surreptitiously indoctrinating us into their scientific materialist Sun-worship, not only do we lose faith in anything beyond the material, we gain absolute faith in materiality, superficiality, status, selfishness, hedonism and consumerism. If there is no God, and everyone is just an accident, then all that really matters is me, me, me. They have turned Madonna, the Mother of God, into a material girl living in a material world. Their rich, powerful corporations with slick Sun-cult logos sell us idols to worship, slowly taking over the world while we tacitly believe their “science,” vote for their politicians, buy their products, listen to their music, and watch their movies, sacrificing our souls at the altar of materialism.Our eyes and experience tell us the Earth is flat and motionless, and everything in the sky revolves around us. When we cease to believe our own eyes and experience we must prostrate ourselves at the feet of the very pseudo-scientists who blinded us, to treat them as “experts,” astronomical “priests” who have special knowledge only they can access, like the Hubble telescope. By brainwashing us of something so gigantic and fundamental, it makes every other kind of lesser indoctrination a piece of cake!Earth being the flat, fixed center of the universe, around which everything in the heavens revolves denotes a special importance and significance not only the Earth, but to us humans, the most intelligent among the intelligent designer’s designs. By turning Earth into a spinning ball thrown around the Sun and shot through infinite space from a Godless Big Bang they turn humanity into a random meaningless, purposeless accident of a blind, dumb universe! It’s trauma-based mind-control! They beat the divinity out of us with their mental manipulations.*****“If the Government or NASA had said to you that the Earth is stationary, imagine that. And then imagine we are trying to convince people that ‘no, no it’s not stationary, it’s moving forward at 32 times rifle bullet speed and spinning at 1,000 miles per hour.’We would be laughed at!We would have so many people telling us ‘you are crazy, the Earth is not moving!’ We would be ridiculed for having no scientific backing for this convoluted moving Earth theory.And not only that but then people would say, ‘oh then how do you explain a fixed, calm atmosphere and the Sun’s observable movement, how do you explain that?’ Imagine saying to people, ‘no, no, the atmosphere is moving also but is somehow magically velcroed to the moving-Earth. The reason is not simply because the Earth is stationary.’So what we are actually doing is what makes sense. We are saying that the moving-Earth theory is nonsense. The stationary-Earth theory makes sense and we are being ridiculed. You’ve got to picture it being the other way around to realize just how RIDICULOUS this situation is.This theory from the Government and NASA that the Earth is rotating and orbiting and leaning over and wobbling is absolute nonsense and yet people are clinging to it, tightly, like a teddy bear. They just can’t bring themselves to face the possibility that the Earth is stationary though ALL the evidence shows it: we feel no movement, the atmosphere hasn’t been blown away, we see the Sun move from East-to-West, everything can be explained by a motionless Earth without bringing in all these assumptions to cover up previous assumptions gone bad.” -Allen Daves******“In short, the sun, moon, and stars are actually doing precisely what everyone throughout all history has seen them do. We do not believe what our eyes tell us because we have been taught a counterfeit system which demands that we believe what has never been confirmed by observation or experiment. That counterfeit system demands that the Earth rotate on an ‘axis’ every 24 hours at a speed of over 1000 MPH at the equator.No one has ever, ever, ever seen or felt such movement (nor seen or felt the 67,000MPH speed of the Earth’s alleged orbit around the sun or its 500,000 MPH alleged speed around a galaxy or its retreat from an alleged ‘Big Bang’ at over 670,000,000 MPH!). Remember, no experiment has ever shown the earth to be moving.Add to that the fact that the alleged rotational speed we’ve all been taught as scientific fact MUST decrease every inch or mile one goes north or south of the equator, and it becomes readily apparent that such things as accurate aerial bombing in WWII (down a chimney from 25,000 feet with a plane going any direction at high speed) would have been impossible if calculated on an earth moving below at several hundred MPH and changing constantly with the latitude.”-Marshall Hall, “A Small, Young Universe After All”https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Ax_YpQsy88
video LINK example : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eooqcaFFz9o
A horizontal angle can be obtained as a difference between two bearings or two relative bearings. The bearing(1) and relative bearing(2) of a ship are usually measured using a pelorus(3) or radar. A better solution for obtaining a horizontal angle is the use of a sextant (Figure 1). The sextant is a primary instrument for celestial navigation, i.e. instrument designed to measure the altitudes of celestial bodies above the visible sea horizon. However, the sextant also allows us to measure the vertical angle of terrestrial objects (the angle between the top of the object and the visible sea or shore horizon) as well as horizontal angle between two points. Generally speaking, the marine sextant measures the angle between two points by bringing the direct image from one point and a double-re ected image from the other into coincidence, and can usually measure angles up to approximately 120 ̊ (Bowditch, 2002). The main advantage of the sextant compared to other angle measuring instruments is its precision. For example, the pelorus can measure up to a maximum of 1/10 of a degree (in practice the bearing is usually rounded to a whole degree), while the marine sextant normally measures 1/10 of a minute (Figure 2). Figure 3 shows a gyro compass repeater and Figure 2 a sextant with micrometer drum and varnier, that reads a fraction of a minute.